It is hard to dispute the importance of avoiding injuries and deaths, which are the occasional outcome of conflicts between police and protesters. Protest Policing in the United States, Two Swedish legal innovations during the s deserve to be men- tioned. The cross-national diffusion of movement ideas. In the 20th century demonstrations were not only well established in the repertoire of social movements cf. A closer regulation for tear gas use during major public order situations is under preparation at the time of writing this text.

Political process and the development of Black insurgency, — The analysis reveals how violence is accounted for by using distinct types of plot and particular characters to present the demonstrators as both victims and agents. In I became involved in a project led by Abby Peterson on the polic- ing of protest in Sweden and Denmark. In the same vein, we must not forget that the styles of protest policing of single events are partially the product of the interaction between police and protesters, 16 and ultimately a large number of individual decisions and ob- served changes cannot necessarily be reduced to a conscious shift in style. The starting point of this analysis was my observation of ac- counts of the origin of violence in activist narratives, in combination with the intense police concerns regarding the topic of provocation. Conversely, the paper also considers certain key spatial aspects as explana- tions for how interactions between protesters and police unfolded in the cases concerned. Apart from both police and activists reacting to the EU summit in Gothenburg , the only obvious case of tactical interaction were the Sa- lem demonstrations, where the innovations on both sides were driven less by general police tactical innovations and more by knowledge of the interactions the previous year.

An International Quarterly 12 4: Since the former type of ethics largely corresponds to the discussions in the subsections above, I will focus on the latter two types. According to this view, in periods when the hegemony of the ruling class is disserttaion uncontested, not much force is needed to maintain power.


I disserrtation to focus on gathering interview data with the political activists and realized that without continuous access to internal discussions it became more difficult to capture a learning process in the direct way that I had planned. However, tear gas has, as yet, never been employed in connection with public order policing.

Armed and Public Order Policing.

Benford and Hunt Department of Homeland Security Office of Domestic Preparedness instructing and training police forces in updated techniques of civil disobedience management Fernandez,p. Accounts of specific episodes of violence during demonstrations hwribert found to theoretically bridge situational and cultural explanations of collective violence.

With permission from the journal, this became the basis for my contribution to paper I, which I wrote together with Mikael Oskarsson.

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Massimiliano Andretta holds a Ph. Starting from two independently written papers, I am respon- sible for the work of merging and structuring the argumentation. Dis order and Summit Protest in Europe.

heribert reiter dissertation

Gorringe and Rosie A new world order. If the police predict that protest will remain orderly and legal, protesters can in turn expect to have good opportunities to express their views albeit not necessar- ily where they are heard by the targets of the protest.

heribert reiter dissertation

Contained contention represents the routine protest activities by established stake- holders. Storytelling in Protest and Politics.

Cross-National and Transnational Perspectives. A note on epistemology In sociological research, meta-theoretical discussions play a prominent role, and it is relatively common that sociologists state their epistemological, and sometimes ontological presuppositions in Sweden typically realist or social constructionist in their dissertations.

Neverthe- less, dissertayion though there are police and activist perspectives on the phenomena I have studied that are not represented in the material, my overall assessment is that I managed to achieve an acceptable level of analytically motivated variation. Objectifying your own perspective is not easy, and I leave it up to the reader to judge the extent to which I may have retained or lost my critical distance in my analyses.

Nurturing the British Model of Disertation. Meanwhile, those who protest in non- institutionalized, unpredictable, and disruptive ways, and who refuse to be- come co-opted by the state, are marginalized.


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The operational principles were put into practice through the use of armoured and lightly armoured vehicles of a type already used in the Netherlands, and the police officers are expected to operate primarily without shield and truncheon, in order to facilitate selective arrests. De Koster, Willem, disserfation Dick Houtman. Two activists suspend them- selves from disesrtation Aubonne bridge, with a rope stretching across the bridge, halting traffic.

Apart from their political and cul- tural resemblance, the two countries are strikingly similar in terms of their developments in protest policing tactics, except for the fact that Danish pro- test policing has been a step ahead of its Swedish counterpart in the s and early s. Between Silence and Negotiation in Heterosexual Relationships.

Social Movements and Culture. In addition, close prox- imity to confrontations is hazardous in terms of the risk of being struck by a bottle or a truncheon.

The analysis reveals that the possibilities dissertatiin achieving sus- tainable agreements between the two parties were frequently constrained by a mutual lack of trust that made any commitments by the other party seem less than credible. Here as well, the different movement sectors had separate spaces in which to build on their affinities, as well as com- mon spaces, designed to increase reciprocal understanding.

Stockholm was another matter. This made it possible for McAdam to measure not only the number of protest events but also the rise and fall of five different innovative forms of contention: Misse and Leif, special thanks for your unyielding support, as well as our many creative discussions since my childhood that encouraged my curiosity and sharpened my analytic thinking!