It is considered one of the most important perennial crops in the planet, with an estimated world output of 3. If a high proportion of photoassimilates is removed from mature leaves during the F-2 stage, a corresponding increase of photosynthesis would be expected, which is not the case. Growth and development of cacao are highly dependent on temperature, which mainly affects vegetative growth, flowering and fruit development. Furthermore, cacao pods take about six-seven months to complete their development Almeida and Valle, There is some evidence that a high number of pollen grains is beneficial for overall pod set Hasenstein and Zavada, and that a high proportion of pollinations results from the visit of a single pollinator Yamada and Guries,

Development of chlorophyll and photosynthetic activity. Factors like soil water deficit and leaf respiration, due to high air temperature and high radiation, can be causes for the intensive leaf fall in the middle and upper canopy layers of the cacao crown Alvim and Alvim, These flowers contain different polyphenolic compounds such as: Bartley BGD Selfing of self-incompatible trees. These are purported to improve producer incomes but little research has explored this claim. The vertical orientation of developing cacao leaves decreases light interception and, thus, leaves can be kept cooler and water loss may be limited in comparison to the mature horizontally positioned leaves Abo-Hamed et al. For most genotypes drought resistance is associated with osmotic adjustment.

The end of leaf production and the growth limitation of subsequent leaves within a flush, which are diivoire in size, are probably consequences of carbohydrate limitations, as noted by Machado and Hardwick Similar results were found by Abo-Hamed et al.

Cacao market

Sena Gomes and Kozlowski reported similar results for cacao seedlings of Catongo. For the one-pipe plot the wetted area was 0. Therefore, in cacao flowers, ABA seems to be diwsertation primary inductor of abscission, while ethylene, although accelerating abscission does not seem to be required for the process Aneja et al.


dissertation le cacao en cote divoire

In several videos I watched about the cocoa’s market about the ebola Cotw had some more information about the impact of the disease on the market. In fact, the extreme sensitivity of some cacao genotypes to low RH can be a limiting growth factor in areas where RH is low Sena Gomes et al.

Congress Photosynthesis, Rehovot, Israel, pp. On the other hand, the effects triggered by dry periods followed by rain on the apical bud activity seem to occur through modifications of the ABA: This strongly suggests that the subsequent leaves in a normal flush grow under the deficit of a presumable factor that supports growth, such as carbohydrate, arresting, therefore, the potential for full size growth Machado and Hardwick, In the interflush the stock of carbohydrates is reestablished and, with the return of a favorable balance, the appearance of a new flush can occur Machado and Hardwick, Baker and Hardwick did not observe changes in the molar relation of chl a: Sale PJM Flushing and leaf growth of cacao under controlled temperature conditions.

The maximum value found at the beginning of the rainy season was 1. UK, University of Liverpool.

The cocoa market gets all the parties worried But some parties takes measures to prevent the disease to spread I Most of the parties around the globe are worried about the situation of the cocoa market, The virus killed around thousands people over the boarder and that makes people worry about it.

Therefore, it seems that high temperatures accelerate flushing initiation. There is no abscission in the absence of ABA in spite of the presence of ethylene. Analyses of new NF and dixsertation flushes PF of cacao plants under controlled environment Orchard et al.

The first Forastero varieties originated from the lower Amazon basin and were cultivated mainly in Brazil and Venezuela Sounigo et al.

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Immediately after the emergence of the next leaf, leaves in the initial F-1 stage are red and are positioned almost vertically upwards. Analysis, design and implementation fostering inclusive, resilient and sustainable market systems development in development, humanitarian and fragile contexts. Thus, shelter trees have been invariably recommended for the establishment of cacao seedlings Alvim,which would be gradually removed with increasing self-shade Byrne, Even completely expanded they do not turn dark green, because they synthesize chl very slowly during expansion.


The genus Theobroma represents an atypical example of an ovarian auto-incompatibility system, quite different from most vegetal incompatibility systems in nature de Nettancourt, Low chl content and high anthocyanin pigmentation of expanding leaves also contribute to maintain relatively low leaf temperature and, together with the presence of relatively dense hair cover on the leaf surface, may contribute to further decrease transpiration rates Abo-Hamed et al.

There are positive correlations between yield and rainfall during months that precede harvest Alvim,where rain distribution is more important than its magnitude Atanda, The predominantly clear summer average of 9 h daily sunshine and the cloudy winter average of 5 h daily sunshine regulate, to a great extent, the behavior of microclimatic parameters above and inside a cacao plantation.

dissertation le cacao en cote divoire

Furthermore, extended exposition to high light intensities damages the leaf photosynthetic mechanism Raja Harun and Hardwick, a. Uniquement disponible sur DissertationsEnLigne.

Clearly, the greater concentration of radicels was observed near the irrigation pipe B. During flush activity a variable number of leaves is produced in fast succession, which expand very quickly Baker and Hardwick, Ontogenetic changes in the leaf chl a: Perpendicularly to the planting line a clear root displacement towards the dripping pipe was observed.